Latissimus Dorsi

The latissimus dorsi muscle medially rotates, adducts, extends, and also depresses the shoulder Latissimusgirdle (not the humeral head).  The range of shoulder flexion/elevation is limited when the latissimus dorsi is short.  When acting bilaterally, the latissimus dorsi extends the spine and anteriorly rotates the hips.  If the abdominals are weak, shoulder flexion is compensated for with lumbar spine extension.  Continue reading

Pectoralis Major

The pectoralis major muscle adducts and medially rotates the humerus.  The upper fibers flex andPecMajor horizontally adduct the shoulder.  The lower fibers depress the shoulder girdle through their attachments on the humerus.  A common clinical finding is that the fibers forming the sternal portion of the pec major test short, while the fibers forming the clavicular portion test long.  Continue reading